Chapter - 2 THE NOUN (الإسم)

Chapter 2
Noun (الإسم)

Base on Wikipedia, A noun, or noun substantive, is a part of speech (a word or phrase) which can co-occur with (in)definite articles and attributive adjectives, and function as the head of a noun phrase.

The word "noun" derives from the Latin nomen meaning "name", and a traditional definition of nouns is that they are all and only those expressions that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality or idea.

Example :
محمد = Muhammad, علي = Ali
قط = cat, كلب = dog
مكة = Mecca, عرب = Arab
ثقافة = culture
استثمار = Investment
السيوعية = comunism
رجل = man, امراءة = woman
الحق = truth,
كتابة = writing, قراءة = reading

Proper nouns and Common nouns (الإسم الأعلام والنكرة)
Proper nouns (also called proper names) are the names of unique entities. For example محمد = Muhammad (people’s names). This includes the name of animal, places, etc. In this case, there are 2 thing that have to be known by a translator :
1. Changing Arabic’s letter to English or Latinian. Example :علي = Ali
2. Capitalizing all first English or Latinian letter.
All other nouns are called common nouns. For example : رجل = man or امراءة = woman.

Concrete nouns and Abstract nouns
Concrete nouns refer to definite objects—objects in which you use at least one of your senses. Example : قط = cat, كلب = dog.
Abstract nouns on the other hand refer to ideas or concepts, such as الحق = truth, العدل = justice, or الجمال = beauty.

Collective nouns (أسماء الجمع)
Collective nouns are subject-specific words used to define a grouping of people, animals, objects or concepts. For example, in the phrase "a parliament of owls", parliament (البرلمان is a collective noun. Other examples in Arabic :
جمهرة = Multitude
جمهور = Crowd
جيش = Army

Verbal nouns (أسماء الفعل)
A verbal noun is a noun formed directly as an inflexion of a verb or a verb stem, sharing at least in part its constructions. This term is applied especially to gerunds, and sometimes also to infinitives and supines.
Example :
القراءة = Reading
الكتابة = Writing
الكلام = Speaking

I hope this explanation could make you able to translate both Arabic into English or English to Arabic. I hope you understand and I will always wait for your attention and your correction.

Thank you very much.

Wassalamu Alaikum Wr. Wb.

Download : noun.pdf

Chapter 1 - WORD

Assalamu Alaikum Wr. Wb.

Based from wikipedia word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together.

It is very important thing for a translator, because in the translations proses, a translator will begin his/her activities by searching meaning of each word.

In this proses, the translator will find 2 kinds of word :

1. Dictionary based word, ex : ‘door’ (Eng=English) means ‘pintu’ (indo=Indonesian) and باب (Arb=Arabic).
2. Undictionary based word, ex : ‘computer’ (Eng) means ‘komputer’ (Indo) and كومبيوتر (Arb).

So a good translator has to know every letter of the word. Especially in Arabic, the translator has to know 2 kinds of translations process :

1. Arabically process, Ex : ‘cat’ (Eng) => قط (Arb=Arab).

2. Latinically process, Ex : سليمان (Arb) => Solomon (Eng).

The translator will find some case below :

1. Latinian letter ‘C’ will be written in Arabic by : س, ق, ك , and ش

Ex : Cat (Eng) => قط (Arb)

Caesar => قيصر (Arb)

2. Word سليمان (Arb) will be written in Latinian by ‘Solomon’ (Eng).

In their process, the translators have to be sure that their work will be understood by listener or reader. It is very important, especially in Arabically process, because some Arabically process was not be understood by Arabian. For example adverb form ‘Solomon’ is ‘ Solomonic’. So the translator will translate ‘Solomonic Dynasty’ (Eng) by أسرة سلومونيك. whereas the correct is الأسرة السليمانية.

Method of this study is little different with another learn Arabic method. In this study, the kind of word is consisting of a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, a verb, an adverb, a preposition, a conjunction, and an interjection. And it will be posted in the next chapter, insya Allah.

Please Correct me if I Wrong

Wassalamu Alaikum Wr. Wb.

Download : Word.pdf